Sediments are an integral part of wetlands. They provide habitat for many aquatic species and are important sources or sinks for carbon, nutrients, and contaminants. Although the importance of sediments for aquatic systems is recognized, they are often still considered a black box. Complex interactions between biological, chemical and physical elements determine processes at the sediment-water interface. The role of sediments in wetland management is therefore dependent on abiotic characteristics as well as on activity, functioning and/or biodiversity of benthic communities.